Evaluation of the Vulnerability of Speaker Verification to Synthetic Speech
Proc. Odyssey (The speaker and language recognition workshop) 2010
De Leon, P.L.
In this paper, we evaluate the vulnerability of a speaker verification (SV) system to synthetic speech. Although this problem was first examined over a decade ago, dramatic improvements in both SV and speech synthesis have renewed interest in this problem. We use a HMM-based speech synthesizer, which creates synthetic speech for a targeted speaker through adaptation of a background model and a GMM-UBM-based SV system. Using 283 speakers from the Wall-Street Journal (WSJ) corpus, our SV system has a 0.4% EER. When the system is tested with synthetic speech generated from speaker models derived from the WSJ journal corpus, 90% of the matched claims are accepted. This result suggests a possible vulnerability in SV systems to synthetic speech. In order to detect synthetic speech prior to recognition, we investigate the use of an automatic speech recognizer (ASR), dynamic-timewarping (DTW) distance of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), and previously-proposed average inter-frame difference of log-likelihood (IFDLL). Overall, while SV systems have impressive accuracy, even with the proposed detector, high-quality synthetic speech can lead to an unacceptably high acceptance rate of synthetic speakers.