Pharyngealization in Libyan (Tripoli) Arabic: an instrumental study
Laradi, Widad Jutia
This thesis aims to study the phenomenon of pharyngealization in Arabic, in the dialect of Tripoli, Libya in relation to other dialects of Arabic. The term 'pharyngealization', as used in this study, refers to all the sounds whose main articulatory requisite is a constriction in the pharyngeal cavity. This is a physiological and articulatory study -based primarily on observations made on video-endoscopic and video-fluorographic recordings; spectrographic analysisq palatographic and airflow measurements also contributed. Chapter 1 states the aim and scope of this thesis. It defines the dialect studied and describes some of the main aspects of the sound system of Tripoli Arabic. Chapter 2 gives a description of the main structures and muscles and their actions that are considered to, directly or indirectly, play the major role in the production of these sounds. Chapter 3 describes the experimental techniques used in this study: a) fibreoptic endoscopy with videorecording b) X-ray recording; static, xeroradiography and videofluorography c) airflow recording by pneumotachography d) palatography e) labiography and f) spectrography. Chapter 4 deals with the pharyngeal consonants and studies certain issues related to their phonetic realizations and to the role of the epiglottis in their production. Chapter 5 describes the uvular consonants. Endoscopic observation revealed a great side wall movement of the pharynx occurring during the articulation of the uvular /q/, which takes place at a superior level in the pharynx. Chapter 6 deals with the pharyngealized consonants, divides them into primary and secondary and attempts to show that a large part of the problem in the description of these sounds stems from a phonemic split in the vowel /a:/. Chapter 7 discusses the main findings in this study and shows, among other things, that a great epiglotto-pharyngeal constriction is the main articulatory requisite in the articulation of the pharyngeal sounds in Arabic, irrespective of other factors. It also attempts to determine to what extent soft palate lowering and nasal airflow are coterminous with the articulation of the pharyngeal sounds.