|dc.description.abstract||Breast cancer is one of the most widespread types of cancer in the world. The key
factor in treatment is to reliably diagnose the cancer in the early stages. Moreover,
currently used clinical diagnostic methods, such as X-ray, ultra-sound and MRI, are
limited by cost and reliability issues. These limitations have motivated researchers to
develop a more effective, low-cost diagnostic method and involving lower ionization
for cancer detection. In this thesis, radar based microwave imaging is proposed as a
method for early breast cancer detection. This imaging system has advantages such as
low cost, being non- invasive and easy to use, with high image resolution and its thus
good potential for early cancer detection.
In the first stage, an ultra-wideband Vivaldi antenna and a slot Vivaldi antenna are
proposed, simulated and fabricated for breast cancer detection. The designed antennas
exhibit an ultra-wideband working frequency. The radiation patterns also achieve the
desired directional radiation patterns.
The second stage of this study presents a planar breast phantom and a hemisphere
breast phantom. These two breast phantoms are simulated and fabricated using CST
microwave studio and tissue-mimicking materials respectively. Mono-static radar
systems based on a single antenna configuration and an antenna pair configuration are
then proposed. These two systems are used to measure the planar breast phantom and
hemi- sphere breast phantom, with the scattering signals measured in the frequency
and time domains. Based on the measurement results, it is concluded that the reflected
energy increases when the antenna moves close to the tumour; otherwise, the reflected
energy is reduced when the antenna moves away from the tumour.
The received time domain scattering signals are processed first and then used to
create microwave images to indicate tumour position. A clutter removal method is
proposed to extract the tumour response from the received signals. The microwave
images are then created using the tumour response based on the simulation and
experimental results. The imaging results indicate that a 5 mm radius tumour can be
The tumour burial depth is also studied. A multi bio- layer phantom which contains
deep and shallow buried tumours is simulated and measured using the Vivaldi antenna.
A spectrum analysis method is proposed to distinguish between different tumour
depths. The results indicate that a difference in depth of 15 mm results in a mean
change of 0.3 dB in the magnitude of the spectrum.
Discrimination between benign and malignant tumours is also considered in this
study. The singularity expansion method (SEM) for breast cancer is proposed to
discriminate between benign and malignant tumours based on their morphology. Two
cancerous breast phantoms are developed in CST. The benign tumour is a 5mm radius
sphere and the malignant tumour is a spiny sphere with an average radius of 5mm.
The use of the SEM leads to the successful discrimination of these two tumours. This
method provides a solution to discriminate between benign and malignant tumours
similar size when the resulting images cannot provide sufficient resolution.
A preliminary study of brain cancer detection is also concluded. Research in this
area has never been implemented. A cancerous brain model is designed and simulated
in CST. The antenna pair configuration is then used to measure the cancerous brain,
with the scattering signals measured. Microwave images for brain cancer detection are
then created based on the measurement results. The tumour is correctly indicated in
the resulting images.||en
|dc.publisher||The University of Edinburgh||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Haoyu Zhang; Arslan, Tughrul; Flynn, Brian, "Wavelet de-noising based microwave imaging for brain cancer detection," Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2013 Loughborough , pp.482,485, 11-12 Nov. 2013||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Haoyu Zhang; Arslan, Tughrul; Flynn, Brian, "A single antenna based microwave system for breast cancer detection: Experimental results," Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2013 Loughborough , pp.477,481, 11-12 Nov. 2013||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Haoyu Zhang; Arslan, Tughrul; Flynn, Brian, "Microwave imaging of a realistic cancerous phantom using an ultra-wideband antenna transceiver system," Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2013 Loughborough ,pp.112,116, 11-12 Nov. 2013||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Haoyu Zhang; Brian Flynn; Ahmet, T. Erdogan; Tughrul, Arslan, "Microwave Imaging for Brain Tumour Detection Using an UWB Vivaldi Antenna Array", Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference 2012 (LAPC 2012), Loughborough, UK, November 12-13, 2012.||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Haoyu Zhang; El-Rayis, A.O.; Haridas, N.; Noordin, N.H.; Erdogan, A.T.; Arslan, T., "A smart antenna array for brain cancer detection," Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2011 Loughborough , vol., no., pp.1,4, 14-15 Nov. 2011||en
|dc.title||Microwave imaging for ultra-wideband antenna based cancer detection||en
|dc.type||Thesis or Dissertation||en
|dc.type.qualificationname||PhD Doctor of Philosophy||en